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A reconstruction of the phylogeny of Bromeliaceae based on sequence data from three noncoding chloroplast DNA markers (trnL intron, trnT–trnL, and trnT–trnF intergenic spacer [IGS]) is presented, including 26 genera and 33 species. Relationships of Bromelioideae and phylogeny within this subfamily were analyzed in more detail on the basis of two of these markers (trnL intron and trnL–trnF IGS) using a set of 37 genera/74 species of Bromeliaceae, including 28 genera/60 species of Bromelioideae. Sister group relationships of Bromelioideae were not resolved with sufficient reliability, but the most likely candidates are the genera Fosterella and Puya. The basal phylogeny of Bromelioideae also was not resolved. Greigia, Ochagavia/Fascicularia/Fernseea, Deinacanthon, Bromelia, and a ‘‘core group’’ of the remaining Bromelioideae formed a basal polytomy. Within Bromelioideae, the AFLP technique was applied to assess relationships among selected groups of genera. In the Ochagavia/Fascicularia group (5 species and subspecies/16 accessions), AFLP data fully confirmed the systematic relationships based on morphological and anatomical characters. Investigation of 30 Aechmea species (33 accessions), including all subgenera and one species each from the related genera Ursulaea, Portea, Chevaliera, and Streptocalyx produced no resolution for several of the species. Clades that received good bootstrap support generally did not correspond with the delimitation of subgenera of Aechmea. Additionally, leaf blade anatomy of these species was investigated. The results corresponded partly with those of the AFLP analysis. Generic rank for Ursulaea and Portea was not supported.