Document Type



Politics and Economics (CGU)

Publication Date



Peace and Conflict Studies | Political Science | Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration | Social and Behavioral Sciences


This essay briefly recounts the evolution of the gangs that occupy failed communities and states, further discusses and updates the model of third generation street gangs discussed in an earlier Journal of Gang Research article—typically described simply as third generation gangs (3 GEN Gangs), and suggests strategies for coping with and mitigating this evolved form of gang violence. Of note is the lack of impact 3 GEN Gangs studies have had on domestically focused U.S. academic gang research while, at the same time, becoming a dominant model in use by defense analysis and scholars focusing on increasingly politicized non-state threat groups including heavily armed Latin American gang.

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© 2012 National Gang Crime Research Center

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