Integrating Feral Cities and Third Phase Cartels/Third Generation Gangs Research: The Rise of Criminal (Narco) City Networks and Blackfor
Politics and Economics (CGU)
Defense and Security Studies | Political Science | Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration | Social and Behavioral Sciences
This essay addresses and integrates ‘feral cities’ with ‘third phase cartel’ and ‘third generation gangs’ (3GEN Gangs) research. The feral cities diagnostic tool will be expanded from three levels (green, yellow, and red) to five (adding purple and black). This will be accomplished by means of the addition of two new levels that model the shift from ferality (de-institutionalization) to criminal re-institutionalization of urban social and political structures around new patterns of living. Such processes set the stage for the projected emergence of the BlackFor (Black Force) within the Americas. BlackFor represents a confederation of illicit non-state actors – essentially a postmodern form of societal cancer – linked together by means of a network of criminalized and criminal (narco) cities as are now arising.
© 2011 Taylor and Francis
Bunker, R. J., & Sullivan, J. P. (2011). Integrating feral cities and third phase cartels/third generation gangs research: the rise of criminal (narco) city networks and BlackFor. [Special Issue: Criminal Insurgencies in Mexico and the Americas: The Gangs and Cartels Wage War.] Small Wars & Insurgencies, 22(5), 765-787. doi:10.1080/09592318.2011.620804