Document Type

Book Chapter


Politics and Economics (CGU)

Publication Date



Military and Veterans Studies | Political Science | Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration | Social and Behavioral Sciences


The primarily bipolar world that helped to characterize the decades long Cold War has begun to realign itself. The information revolution, increasing globalizations, the ongoing expansion of transnational terrorist and insurgent networks, and many other elements of this systemic level change have continued to take place into the early twenty-first century. Within the context of this large-scale shift in human and state relations, one question that has often been asked by analysis is whether changing forms of insurgency are taking place. If this is so, these changing forms of insurgency would be distinct from the currently dominant political form of insurgency found in the revolutionary, and at times nationalistic, writings of Mao Zedong, Giap, Thai, Guevara, Marighella, Urbano, Bayo and others. Almost all our current understanding of insurgency theory is derived from this dominant form that reached its zenith in the decades following the Second World War.


Excerpt from content used in lieu of an abstract.

“Chapter 4: Changing Forms of Insurgency: Pirates, Narco Gangs and Failed States.” Paul B. Rich, and Isabelle Duyvesteyn, eds. The Routledge Handbook of Insurgency and Counter-Insurgency. London, UK: Routledge 2012: 45-53.

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© 2012 Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group

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