Use of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire For Measuring Nicotine Dependence Among Adolescent Smokers in China: A Pilot Test
Community and Global Health (CGU)
Tobacco or nicotine dependence is a complex syndrome that involves numerous physiological, psychological, and behavioral processes (Shadel, Shiffman, Niaura, Nichter, & Abrams, 2000). These include frequency and amount of nicotine intake, individual genetic vulnerability to nicotine, personality traits, and early childhood experiences. The complex mechanism of nicotine dependence makes challenging the assessment of the level of addiction of a person who is progressing toward or has already established nicotine dependence (Colby, Tiffany, Shiffman, & Niaura, 2000). This is especially true when assessing young smokers because of rapid fluctuations in their smoking behavior (Colby et al., 2000; Prokhorov, Pallonen, Fava, Ding, & Niaura, 1996; Rojas, Killen, Haydel, & Robinson, 1998).
© 2002 American Psychological Association
Chen, X., Zheng, H., Sussman, S., Gong, J., Stacy, A., Xia, J., Gallaher, P., Dent, C., Li, Y., Azen, S., Shan, J., Unger, J.B., & Johnson, C.A. Use of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire for measuring nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers in China: A pilot test. Psych. Addict. Beh. 16:260-263, 2002.