Document Type

Article - postprint


Community and Global Health (CGU)

Publication Date



Health Psychology | Multicultural Psychology | Public Health Education and Promotion | Race and Ethnicity | Substance Abuse and Addiction


Associations between peer group self-identification and smoking were examined among 2,698 ethnically diverse middle school students in Los Angeles who self-identified with groups such as Rockers, Skaters, and Gamers. The sample was 47.1% male, 54.7% Latino, 25.4% Asian, 10.8% White, 9.1% Other ethnicity, and 59.3% children of immigrant parents. Multiple group self identification was common: 84% identified with two or more groups and 65% identified with three or more groups. Logistic regression analyses indicated that as students endorsed more high risk groups, the greater their risk of tobacco use. A classification tree analysis identified risk groups based on interactions among ethnicity, gender, and group self-identification. Psychographic targeting based on group self-identification could be useful to design more relevant smoking prevention messages for adolescents who identify with high-risk peer groups.


This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Substance Use & Misuse on 05/2012, available online: .

Accessed through the National Institute of Health

Rights Information

© 2012 Carl Anderson Johnson. Posted with permission.