Researcher ORCID Identifier

Graduation Year


Date of Submission


Document Type

Campus Only Senior Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts



Reader 1

Carmen Dessauer

Reader 2

Kyle Jay

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Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the conversion of ATP to the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. Mammals possess nine isoforms of transmembrane ACs, dubbed AC1-9. The transmembrane ACs are compartmentalized to different microdomains of the plasma membrane. This compartmentation, along with varying expression patterns across tissues, allows for a diversity of cellular and physiological responses due to AC-mediated cAMP signaling. Here, I comprehensively review the latest literature on the physiological roles of the nine mammalian transmembrane ACs. Then, I propose future study into the role of AC4 in the cardiovascular system, where expression of this isoform is high but previous research is lacking. Previous evidence suggests that AC4 plays an important physiological role in non-contractile functions of the heart, so I propose to investigate its role in fibrotic pathology. An AC-mediated cAMP signaling pathway is known to inhibit fibrosis, and I design experiments to investigate AC4 as the primary isoform mediating anti-fibrosis in the heart. Expanding the understanding of the nine isoforms will differentiate the physiological roles and responses in various tissues under various cellular environments. AC pathways play a significant role in many human diseases, and research into their roles can lead to the development of clinically useful drugs.

This thesis is restricted to the Claremont Colleges current faculty, students, and staff.