Researcher ORCID Identifier

Graduation Year


Date of Submission


Document Type

Open Access Senior Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


Environment, Economics, and Politics (EEP)

Reader 1

William Ascher

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© 2022 Kimberly Zamora-Delgado


The conflated pattern between poverty, rurality, and indigeneity in Mexico signifies drastic inequality between populations. Poor, rural communities often do not receive as much public services, infrastructure improvements, and employment opportunities as urban areas, which causes out-migration into the cities. Some of the few jobs available in rural areas are in the agriculture sector, either through small-scale subsistence farming or seasonal employment on a large-scale farm. Historically, certain wealthy states such as Sinaloa, Michoacán, and Sonora received greater support to up-scale into modernized agriculture, which made them into the largest agro-exporters. On the other hand, poor states with greater indigenous and rural populations do not have access to markets and are forced to abandon their livelihoods. Without proper support through financial incentives and agricultural subsidies, the economic welfare of small-scale agriculture will continue to secede along with domestic food security. Adapting to the challenges of climate change by implementing climate-smart, organic, agroforestry, and modernized traditional agriculture these communities can move into sustainable productivity. The combined resources and policies from local, state, national, and transnational entities are analyzed as a prospective method to ensure the livelihoods of these communities.