Graduation Year


Document Type

Open Access Senior Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


Science, Technology and Society

Reader 1

Laura Perini

Reader 2

Nancy Williams

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Rights Information

© 2017 Emily D. Gratke


American zoological parks have been sites of intense consumer and scholar interest since their origination in the 20th century. Today, zoos reside at a tenacious hub of ideologies, practices, and priorities contributed to by various stakeholder groups. I propose that the foundational cause of this tension is zoological multiplicity: the theory that through human practices and perceptions, animals can embody multiple identities. Via an exploration of zoological multiplicity in American zoos with specific focus on zoo management, zoogoer, and animal activist stakeholder groups, this project proposes the widespread acknowledgment and understanding of zoological multiplicity as a method to improve animal care and global wildlife conservation projects.