Graduation Year


Document Type

Open Access Senior Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts



Second Department

Politics and International Relations

Reader 1

Nayana Bose

Reader 2

Dilara Üsküp

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© 2018 Romanshi Gupta


The Total Sanitation Campaign is an initiative launched by the Government of India in 1999 to accelerate sanitation coverage throughout the country. This thesis measures the impact of the Total Sanitation Campaign on education in Indian government schools. I assess whether access to toilets, access to water or access to both toilets and water impact the following parameters of education: literacy, current enrollment in school or completed years of education. Data is sourced from the Indian Human Development Survey (IHDS) 2005, sorted for the nineteen major states in India and aggregated at a district level for each state. The analysis employs two separate probit regression models to assess sanitation facilities’ impact on literacy and current enrollment in school, and a robust linear model to assess sanitation facilities’ impact on completed years of education. The models control for age, sex, caste, religion, household location, household size and household income. The results indicate that sanitation facilities positively impact education based on the age, sex and caste of the sample population. These findings present implications for future policymaking in order to improve access to and participation in education.