Graduation Year


Document Type

Open Access Senior Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts



Reader 1

Susan Martonosi

Reader 2

Christopher Towse

Rights Information

2019 SeongEun Lee


In this work, we aim to present an optimization model for vaccine pricing in a two-economy duopoly. This model observes the price dynamics between a high income country and a low income country that procure vaccinations through PAHO. This model is formulated to provide insights on optimal pricing strategy for PAHO to ultimately increase vaccine accessibility to low income countries. The objective is to satisfy the public demand at the lowest price possible, while providing enough profit for the vaccine manufacturers to stay in business. Using non-linear integer programming, the model results show that cross-subsidization occurs in PAHO vaccine procurement.

Included in

Mathematics Commons