This paper seeks to answer a driving research question: Why do the Baltic Countries exhibit disparate levels of immigration and emigration? The paper considers the period from 2004, when Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania became European Union member states, up to 2019. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, while all small states in the same region, experience different levels of net migration. As Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia maintain small populations with negative natural population increases, migration inflows and outflows are quite significant. Among the three, Latvia and Lithuania have experienced dramatically negative net migration. Examining the push and pull factors influencing net migration in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, sheds light on key factors shaping migration patterns, which can aid in developing policies that align with the countries’ interests regarding migration.

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2021 Annalise Simons

Creative Commons License

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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