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a whole, strongly supported the mostly African tribe Amaryllideae as sister to the rest of the family, and resolved geographically-based monophyletic groups, but failed to resolve the relationships among several basal lineages in the family (the African Haemantheae and Cyrtantheae, the Australasian Calostemmateae, and the American and Eurasian sister clades). We present analysis of plastid ndhF sequences that fully resolved the major clades of the family. The baccate-fruited Haemantheae and Calostemmateae are sister tribes, and the African endemic Cyrtantheae is sister to them both. This clade is sister to an American/Eurasian clade. We also present preliminary nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence analysis of the Eurasian clade. Lycorideae are basal in the group and begin a grade that continues with Hannonia, then Pancratium, then Lapiedra. The genera Galanthus, Narcissus, and Sternhergia are resolved as monophyletic with strong support. Leucojum is paraphyletic and recognition of Acis for the mostly autumn-flowering Mediterranean species is supported. Recent phylogenetic analyses of various tribes and genera of the family are reviewed. Above the family level, Agapanthaceae, Alliaceae, and Amaryllidaceae form a well-supported monophyletic group, but exact resolution of the relationships among the three subclades varies depending on the sequence matrix utilized. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II has advocated combining all three into a single family, Alliaceae. We discuss this decision, which has historical precedent, but recommend that Amaryllidaceae be conserved as the name for the family in such a treatment.

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© 2006 Alan W. Meerow, Deirdre A. Snijman

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