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A synoptical key to the three orders Annonales, Berberidales, and Nymphaeales of the superorder Annoniflorae is presented with discussion as to why these orders, the core of the histmical Ranales, are considered to be closely related to one another but divergent from the similarly plimitive Hamamelidales of the Hamamelidiflorae, and why the names Annonales and Berberidales are preferred to the names Magnoliales and Ranunculales. For each of the three orders detailed synoptical keys to the 33 families and 30 subfamilies (21 additional to the typical subfamilies) recognized by the author are presented. Also the included families of each order are discussed with explanation of their accepted alignment, circumscription, and geography. Finally, an extensive bibliography is listed to those publications that represent the documentation for the author's interpretation of the Annoniflorae. Five new subfamilies are published by reference to their basonyms : Mollinedioideae of the Monimiaceae, Idiospermoideae of the Calycanthaceae, Peperomioideae of the Piperaceae, and Euryaloideae and Barclayoideae of the Nymphaeaceae.

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© 1974 Robert F. Thorne

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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