Date of Award

Summer 2023

Degree Type

Open Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Political Science, PhD


School of Social Science, Politics, and Evaluation

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Melissa Rogers

Dissertation or Thesis Committee Member

Yi Feng

Dissertation or Thesis Committee Member

Mietek P. Boduszyński

Terms of Use & License Information

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Rights Information

© 2023 Abdurraouf Elakder


Bureaucracy, Development, Economic Growth, Foreign Direct Investment, Libya, United Arab Emirates

Subject Categories

Economics | Political Science


Attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) is a determinant factor for developing national economies, and Libya is no exception. However, the bureaucracy in Libya still needs to be improved to help attract foreign direct investment. Therefore, this comparative case study seeks to analyze the effects of bureaucracy on attracting FDI to Libya and the United Arab Emirates, highlighting the bureaucratic barriers embodied mainly in bureaucratic expansion, bureaucratic corruption, and the obstacles of the FDI laws. I argue in favor of eliminating those bureaucratic barriers and improving bureaucratic quality, enhancing the chances of attracting and keeping FDI. The study's standpoint is that eliminating bureaucratic flaws such as bureaucratic expansion, bureaucratic corruption, and drawbacks of the foreign direct investment law are preconditions for the inflows of foreign direct investment to Libya, taking the experience of the UAE as an example in this regard. This study takes Libya as a major case and the UAE as a minor one. The United Arab Emirates succeeded in adopting bureaucratic reforms varying from reducing bureaucratic expansion and corruption and updating its FDI laws, which improved its bureaucratic quality and encouraged the inflows of FDI in recent decades. Therefore, the experience of the UAE is considered a suitable model that Libya can apply to attract FDI. The study goes beyond how the UAE utilized its bureaucracy in attracting FDI and how Libya did not to why the UAE could conduct such bureaucratic reforms while Libya could not. For the why aspect, the study brings the roles of political stability and the political leadership character and incentive. The study bridges qualitative and qualitative methods through the investigation process. It runs a simple regression model to determine whether what is being explored qualitatively about the relationship between bureaucratic quality and FDI inflows makes sense when quantitively examined.