Date of Award

Summer 2023

Degree Type

Open Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Public Health, DPH


School of Community and Global Health

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Deborah Freund

Dissertation or Thesis Committee Member

Jay Orr

Dissertation or Thesis Committee Member

CarlyWill Sloan

Dissertation or Thesis Committee Member

Dhruv Khurana

Terms of Use & License Information

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Rights Information

© 2023 Domonique H Rood


California Crisis Act, Community Mental Health Intervention, Law Enforcement, Mental Health, Mental Health Crisis, Use of Force

Subject Categories

Law Enforcement and Corrections | Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration


In California, many law enforcement agencies have partnered with local mental health services to manage situations that involve people with mental illness in crisis; much of the research on these programs has focused on the effectiveness and financial savings of implementing these programs (i.e. reductions in adjudications and hospitalizations). This study examined whether these programs are effectively managed mental health crises across California. This study implemented a sequential mixed methods design that used qualitative data to explain quantitative results to determine effectiveness. Quantitatively, effectiveness was defined as a reduction in injury (both in severity and frequency of injury), arrests, and use of firearms. Qualitatively, effectiveness was determined by the individual who was interviewed, which helped to provide context to the quantitative results. Additionally, qualitative findings will help to elucidate disparities seen in the quantitative results. Quantitative analysis involved the use of staggered difference in difference analysis of Use of Force data over a six year period (2016-2021). There was no treatment effect found; none of the estimators were found to be significant; but an overall increase of incident of violence was found. Qualitative analysis found that these partnerships are not effective and the following trends were identified: there are long waits for the teams to arrive; law enforcement require more training and better protocols need to be established. A discussion of alternatives approaches to law enforcement intervention follows as well how few teams are present in each County.