Date of Award


Degree Type

Open Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Information Systems and Technology, PhD


Center for Information Systems and Technology

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Lorne Olfman

Dissertation or Thesis Committee Member

David Drew

Dissertation or Thesis Committee Member

Brian Hilton

Terms of Use & License Information

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License.

Rights Information

© 2020 Maram Almufareh


Attitude, ESL, Experience, Gamification, Motivation, Technology-Enhanced Training Effectiveness Model

Subject Categories

Educational Technology | Science and Technology Studies


Background: The Technology-Enhanced Training Effectiveness Model (TETEM) has been used to assess the effectiveness of various technology driven solutions in improving students’ learning outcomes in multiple academic fields. However, limited research is available on the use of TETEM in the context of second language learning. Using a modified TETEM, this study seeks first, to assess the direct effects of student’s attitude, and experience with video-gaming on student’s achievement and second, to evaluate the effects of student’s attitude and experience that are mediated by student’s motivation. Methods: This study was conducted among preparatory year students at Al-Jouf University, Saudi Arabia. In a simple random sampling, students were assigned to the technology-enhanced group (Duolingo® group) or the control group. We started with confirmatory factor analysis to establish homogenous latent variables, and subsequently used structural equation models to evaluate the presence of direct and mediated effects. Results: The technology-enhanced group performed better in reading, grammar, and vocabulary, while the control group showed more participation and timely completion of assignments. Positive attitude towards video gaming had both a direct and mediating positive correlation with student achievement. Additionally, motivation towards ESL learning was independently and positively correlated with student achievement. Conclusion: Technology enhancement improves students’ performance for ESL, however, adequate integration of technology in the course curricula is needed to minimize interference with class participation. Positive attitude towards video games and motivation towards ESL learning are positive predictors of student achievement, while experience with video games has no significant effect.