Haptic Integration of Object Properties: Texture, Hardness, and Planar Contour
Planar objects varying in shape, texture, and hardness were classified under haptic exploration. Classes were defined by values on one dimension, or redundantly, by two or three dimensions. Response times and exploratory procedures (Lederman & Klatzky, 1987) were recorded. Experiment 1 showed that a second dimension speeded responses for all combinations (redundancy gain), but a third dimension produced no further effect. In Experiments 2 and 3, classification trials began with two redundant dimensions, and subsequently one was withdrawn (held constant). When texture and hardness varied redundantly, withdrawal of either increased response time—even when subjects were initially instructed to focus on one dimension. Joint exploration for texture and hardness dominated whenever the two varied redundantly and persisted despite withdrawal. Redundancy gains (Experiment 1), but not substantial withdrawal effects (Experiments 2 and 3), were observed for combinations of texture or hardness with planar contour, indicating less integration than between substance dimensions. Compatibility of exploratory procedures appears to constrain dimensional integration.
© 1989 American Psychological Association
Klatzky, R.L., Lederman, S.J., & Reed, C.L. (1989). Haptic integration of object properties: Texture, hardness, and planar contour. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15, 45-57.