Graduation Year


Date of Submission


Document Type

Open Access Senior Thesis


Keck Center Best Senior Thesis - Comparative Politics

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


International Relations

Reader 1

Katja Favretto

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© 2021 Katherine E O'Neill


Using Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico as case studies, this paper examines how women’s collaboration influences the effects of gender quotas on women’s representation. The efficacy of gender quotas in increasing the numerical representation of women and improving gender equality outcomes is well-researched, but questions remain about the precise linkages between the numerical representation of women and the substantive representation of women. This thesis analyzes previously identified linkages alongside actions by women’s organizations in national legislatures and civil society to better understand women’s roles as critical actors in making gender quotas successful. The findings suggest that women’s collaboration is crucial in achieving and defining substantive representation, ensuring proper implementation of quotas, and translating higher numerical representation into real gender equality outcomes.