Graduation Year


Date of Submission


Document Type

Open Access Senior Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts



Reader 1

David Day

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2022 Karen D Almachi


This literature review examines the influence of culture on an individual’s perception of a leader. Research on cultural influences and perceptions is taken to establish an interconnection between the two. The research is analyzed through the lens of two theoretical frameworks: the implicit leadership theory and the cultural dimensions theory. The frameworks are used to operationalize cultural differences and perceptions. The research establishes six dimensions that describe cultural differences between countries. To put into perspective, two culturally different countries are examined for their perception of leadership: the United States and Ecuador. The United States has a low power distance, individualistic, masculine, and low uncertainty avoidance culture while Ecuadorian culture is a high-power distance, collectivistic, masculine, and high uncertainty avoidance. The main findings suggest a relationship between culture type and leadership style. In western culture, an individual with traits aligned with their culture is more likely to be perceived as a successful leader while in Ecuadorian culture, there is a different perception of an ideal leader. Overall, culture influences a society’s perception of leaders in terms of the type of traits, characteristics, and behaviors that they should be exhibiting. Individuals who do not match the categorization would not be perceived as a leader by others.

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