Graduation Year


Date of Submission


Document Type

Open Access Senior Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts



Reader 1

Nancy Williams

Reader 2

Brian Duistermars


The Coronavirus 2019 Disease (COVID-19) has been shown by multiple studies to have disproportionate impacts on some individuals, especially minority populations. These may be attributed to differences in biological (sex), gender, social or cultural factors. In this study, we aim to identify and investigate the gender and social predictors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of the virus and its health outcomes. To achieve this, a literature review expands on relevant topics that better contextualize COVID-19’s complex nature. The potential role of hormones, estrogen, and testosterone is considered across different sexes and genders as protective agents against COVID-19. This study also describes comorbidity conditions that may further complicate COVID-19’s effects on individuals. Finally, in the proposal, measurements of the Quality of Life scale, COVID-19 Severity Index, COVID-19-related stressors, and hormone levels are used to assess their association with Latine and Non-Latine individuals of different gender identities in Los Angeles County. This leads to an important aspect of this study which is to uphold the participants’ individual experiences through an optional qualitative interview. Overall, this work highlights possible biological and gender-related explanations for the burdens experienced by minority groups known to be historically excluded from research.