Joy ZhuFollow

Graduation Year


Date of Submission


Document Type

Campus Only Senior Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts



Reader 1

Jessamyn Schaller


Women have always shouldered the burden of unpaid labor across the globe. The United States is especially unique with its diverse population, which calls for a nuanced analysis of the divisions of household production. This paper explores the gender gaps in unpaid labor when faced with a shock like COVID-19 that shifted labor dynamics inside and outside the home. Drawing on the existing literature on the divisions of household production in various countries, my study aims to fill the gaps through an intersectional lens. Using the American Time Use Survey collected by the United States Census Bureau, I have analyzed how the levels of unpaid labor have changed across different demographic variables such as race, gender, and education. The results support that women have done more unpaid labor than men over the last decade and highlight certain subgroups that took on greater burdens of household production. Lastly, I discuss the theoretical implications and make some recommendations for future research.

This thesis is restricted to the Claremont Colleges current faculty, students, and staff.