Student Co-author

HMC Undergraduate

Document Type



Chemistry (HMC)

Publication Date



We present calculations for various properties of the ground and excited states of several arylamine-substituted acridinium ion systems that have been studied experimentally. Using ab initio and semiempirical quantum mechanical methods together with the generalized Mulliken−Hush (GMH) model, we examine the excitation energies, dipole moment shifts, and electronic coupling elements for the vertical charge shift (CSh) processes in these systems. We also examine solvent effects on these properties using a dielectric continuum reaction field model. The results are in generally good agreement with available experimental results and indicate that there is strong electronic coupling in these systems over a wide range of torsional angles. Nevetheless, the initial and final cationic states remain reasonably well-localized over this range, and thus TICT state formation is unlikely in these systems. Finally, a version of the GMH model based on Koopmans' Theorem is developed and found to yield coupling elements generally within a factor of 2 of the many-electron GMH for a sample acridinium system, but with overestimated adiabatic and diabatic dipole moment differences.

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© 2005 American Chemical Society