Graduation Year


Document Type

Campus Only Senior Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science



Reader 1

Andrew Bernoff

Reader 2

Theresa Lynn

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2019 Quentin F Barth


Swarms are groups of agents, which we model as point particles, whose collective behavior emerges from individual interactions. We study a first-order swarming model in a periodic coordinate system with pairwise social forces, investigating its stable configurations for differing numbers of agents relative to the periodic width. Two states emerge from numerical simulations in one dimension: even spacing throughout the period, or clumping within a certain portion of the period. A mathematical analysis of the energy of the system allows us to determine stability of these configurations. We also perform numerical simulations for evolution to equilibrium over time, and find results in agreement with our mathematical analysis. For certain values of the periodic width relative to the number of agents, our numerical simulations show that either clumping or even spacing can be stable equilibria, and which equilibrium is reached depends on on starting conditions, indicating hysteresis.

This thesis is restricted to the Claremont Colleges current faculty, students, and staff.