Graduation Year


Document Type

Campus Only Senior Thesis

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


W.M. Keck Science Department

Second Department

Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies

Reader 1

Erin Jones

Reader 2

Piya Chatterjee

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Terms of Use for work posted in Scholarship@Claremont.

Rights Information

© 2022 Raven S Twilling


Over 40 years ago, the world’s first “test-tube baby” was conceived, setting a biomedical precedent for the use of In Vitro fertilization (IVF) (Cookson, 2017). Since then, millions of people worldwide have successfully overcome infertility through IVF. While assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have continued to advance in both their complexity and scope of applicability, certain populations lack access to relevant reproductive technologies (Tam, 2021). Notably, ART research and technology has failed to adequately meet the reproductive needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, two-spirited, intersex, and asexual people (LGBTQ2SIA+). The failure of ARTs to meet the reproductive needs of queer peoples calls attention to the ways in which the reproductive experiences of LGBTQ2SIA+ people are informed by lived realities of race, gender, sexuality, and class, alongside a historical context of exclusion from biomedical research. It is imperative that scientific research work towards meeting the reproductive needs of LGBTQ2SIA+ people. This paper is an examination of both existing and future reproductive technologies applicable to queer couples with same-sex gametes. I begin with a broad overview of the biology of human reproduction, one that challenges dominant biomedical norms grounded in the male/female sex binary. Next, I provide an account of existing reproductive technologies applicable to queer couples with same-sex gametes (namely, intrauterine insemination and In Vitro insemination). I then outline contemporary research surrounding theoretical forms of assisted reproduction involving same-sex gametes, focusing on the potential production of artificial human gametes. I conclude with a brief discussion on the ethical implications of this research as it relates to reproductive justice for members of the queer community.

This thesis is restricted to the Claremont Colleges current faculty, students, and staff.