Date of Award

Fall 2022

Degree Type

Open Access Dissertation

Degree Name

Education, PhD


School of Educational Studies

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Carl A. Cohn

Dissertation or Thesis Committee Member

Thomas F. Luschei

Dissertation or Thesis Committee Member

Frances Marie Gipson

Terms of Use & License Information

Terms of Use for work posted in Scholarship@Claremont.

Rights Information

© 2022 Irene Preciado


California K–12 public schools, collaboration, collaboration overcomes adversity., COVID-19, memorandum of understanding (MOU), teacher evaluations

Subject Categories

Educational Leadership


Three key aspects were revealed through the literature review of teacher evaluations. First, teacher evaluations have been controversial nationwide and revised from the outset. Second, the COVID-19 pandemic added a layer of complexity. Third, research on the state of teacher evaluations was minimal, particularly for California K-12 public schools. This mixed methods non-experimental case study employed a grounded theory research approach to gain an understanding of teacher evaluations during the COVID-19 pandemic. To conduct the study, human resource administrators in public school districts serving K-12 students across all 58 counties in California were invited to participate in an online survey. A total of 134 respondents representing 36 counties completed the survey, and some participated in a semi-structured interview. The data was analyzed, and a theme emerged, which was confirmed by the semi-structured interviews. This study unearthed a substantive theory: Collaboration overcomes adversity. Collaboration made supposedly impossible situations manageable. The substantive theory and findings are currently limited to education and teacher evaluations. Further exploration is recommended for policy, research, and practice. Some limitations include single-source information and limited participation from urban school districts.