Publication Date



Aquifer, hydraulic head, groundwater flow model, sand tank, separation of variables, Fourier's Law, IVBVP, no-flow boundary, mixed boundary conditions


Environmental Education | Mathematics | Partial Differential Equations | Physical Sciences and Mathematics | Science and Mathematics Education


A Sand Tank Groundwater Model is a tabletop physical model constructed of plexiglass and filled with sand that is typically used to illustrate how groundwater water flows through an aquifer, how water wells work, and the effects of contaminants introduced into an aquifer. Mathematically groundwater flow through an aquifer can be modeled with the heat equation. We will show how a Sand Tank Groundwater Model can be used to simulate groundwater flow through an aquifer with a no flow boundary condition.

WellHeadLevels2024.xlsx (61 kB)
Sand Tank Well Head Data

SandTankDimensions.pdf (1487 kB)
Sand Tank Dimensions

Trial 2a - Trim.mp4 (84483 kB)
Video File Used to Collect Data

Trial 2a - Trim.trk (476 kB)
Tracker File Used with Video File

GroundwaterFlowModels2024.nb (659 kB)
Mathematica Notebook with Numerical Calculations and Graphs

GroundwaterFlowModels2024.pdf (2292 kB)
PDF Version of Mathematica Notebook

GroundwaterFlowModels2024.xlsx (2475 kB)
Excel File with Numerical Calculations and Graphs

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.